Hijacking a Boeing 777 Electronically

John Downer pointed me to an article in the Sunday Express, which appears to be one of their most-read: World’s first cyber hijack: was missing Malaysia Airlines plane hacked with mobile phone? by James Fielding and Stuart Winter.

The answer is no. To see why, read on.

The authors interviewed a Dr. Sally Leivesley, who is said to run “her own company training businesses and governments to counter terrorist attacks” and is “a former Home Office scientific adviser“.


…Dr Sally Leivesley said last night: “It might well be the world’s first cyber hijack.”

Dr Leivesley, a former Home Office scientific adviser, said the hackers could change the plane’s speed, altitude and direction by sending radio signals to its flight management system. It could then be landed or made to crash by remote control.

Apparently Ms. Leivesley thinks one can can hijack the Flight Management System on a Boeing 777 with a mobile phone.

First point. Suppose you could. When the pilots noted that the aircraft was not doing what they wanted, they would turn off the Flight Management System. Problem solved. It’s nonsense to suggest that the aircraft “could then be landed or made to crash by remote control“.

One needs to make the distinction, clear to people who know anything about aviation systems, between the Flight Management System (FMS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). If you could take over the Flight Control System you would be able to make the airplane land or crash. The Boeing 777 is an aircraft with a computer-controlled FCS, so it is reasonable to ask whether it is vulnerable. Indeed, I did, on a private list which includes the designers of the AIMS critical-data bus (a Honeywell SAFEbus, standardised as ARINC 659; ARINC is an organisation which standardises aviation electronic communication technologies). The FMS and other systems on the Boeing 777 such as the Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) and the Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) use the AIMS bus to transfer critical data and control commands (from the LRMs, the computers processing the data on the AIMS bus) between components. A good generally-accessible reference is Digital Avionics Systems, Second Edition by Cary R. Spitzer, McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Second point. Both FMS and FCS are electronically well-shielded. They have to be – it is part of their certification requirements. They are not vulnerable to picking up signals from a device such as a mobile phone. In fact, there are laboratories where you can park an airplane in the middle of banks of very powerful electromagnetic radiators and irradiate it, to see whether your electronics are shielded. These installations are mostly used for military aircraft, against which aggressors might use such powerful radiators, but they are used by civilian aircraft too.

Third point. Any communication requires a receiver. If you want an electronic system S to pick up and process signals from a radiating device such as a mobile phone, there has to be a receptive device attached to S. So anyone wanting to put spoof data including control commands on a bus must do so through such a receptive device. Either there is one there already (such as in one of the components sharing the bus) or someone has to insert one (a physical tap). And it has to “speak” the communications protocol used by, in this proposed case, an intruding mobile phone. As far as I know, none of the usual components sharing the critical buses on the Boeing 777 has a mobile-phone-communications receiver/transmitter, but some airlines do attach such devices to their systems so that they can download data from the Quick Access Recorder (QAR, a flight-data recording device, such as a “black box” but with fewer parameters and not a critical component) at destination airports after a flight, for quality management purposes. As far as I know, a QAR is a passive device that is not able itself to put data on the bus, so hacking the QAR through its transmitter wouldn’t give you access.

Fourth Point. Could you pre-install a receiving device somewhere on the buses, to allow someone in flight to communicate with the bus, to perform what is called a “man in the middle” (MitM) attack? An MitM spoofs one or more components transferring data on the bus. Well, theoretically someone on the ground with maintenance-type access could install such a component, but let’s ask what it then can do. The AIMS bus carries pure data between components who know what the data means. The bus is clocked and slotted, which means that data is transferred between components according to a global schedule in specific time slots; the bus time is given by a clock, of which values all bus users have to be aware. Components communicate according to certain “timing constraints”, that is, slot positions, which constraints/positions are only “known” to the components themselves. So to spoof any component you need to reverse-engineer the source code which drives that component to find out what its specific “timing constraints” are. So you need the source code.

Not only that, but the AIMS bus, for example, runs at 30 Mb/s (million bits per second), and there is a 2-bit gap between words on the bus; that is, one fifteen-millionth of a second. It is questionable whether the available mobile-phone protocols are fast enough. The fastest protocol in the CDMA2000 family is EV-DO Rev. B at 15.67 Mb/s, so no; there is no time to perform computations to determine a “gap” and start putting your bits on the bus. (Basic CDMA2000 is 144kb/s, extendable to 307kb/s; two orders of magnitude slower.) The HPSA+ protocol, from another mobile-phone protocol family, gets 28Mbp/s upstream and 22 Mb/s downstream, so has half a chance of being compatible. But, really, to synchronise with something running at 30Mb/s and a 2-bit sync gap you’d need something running at more like double that speed, I should think. The wireless computer-network protocols IEEE 802.11g or 802.11n could do it in their faster versions. You’d need a device (and receiver) speaking these (why would it be a mobile phone?)

To visualise what has to happen, imagine trying to merge with traffic travelling on a densely-packed motorway at rush hour – on your bicycle. Even if you are going fast, you’re not likely to be successful.

Then you need to figure out, not only the timing constraints, but what data you want to put on the bus. Again, to know this, you need to reverse-engineer the source code for the components you want to spoof. Indeed, to put the spoof data on the bus consistent with the timing constraints for the component you are spoofing, it would probably be easier to have stolen the SW and use that to satisfy the very narrow timing constraints. All millions of lines of it.

Rather than tap in to the bus for a MitM attack, it would seem more reasonable to install a receiver/transmitter surrepticiously on one of the LRMs (“line replaceable modules”, the processors in the AIMS cabinet) and swap it in.

Summary: to achieve a MitM attack on the critical buses of the Boeing 777, you would need in advance to modify physically some of the hardware processors which run the bus so that they have a transmitter/receiver for WiFi signals (of the more powerful 802.11 standards family), and someone has to install such a modified LRM on the target aircraft beforehand. Then, the SW for the various components which the attacker intends to spoof must be obtained and reverse-engineered to obtain the timing constraints and the data-interchange formats, many million lines of code in all. That must all be installed on a portable device, probably not a mobile phone, which you then use in flight.

Dr. Leivesley refers to Hugo Teso’s demonstration in Amsterdam a year ago, in which he showed how to transmit messages from a mobile phone to a flight simulator running on a PC, and to modify FMS commands on the simulator via ACARS and ADS-B vulnerabilities. Neat demo, but it didn’t show you could take over a flight control system, as pointed out by many commentators. For one thing, the PC already has relevant communications devices (Bluetooth, WiFi, and one can insert a USB dongle for mobile-phone reception). Second, it’s just flight simulation software. Who knows what kinds of vulnerabilities it has and who cares? It is not the certified SW running on an actual airplane, or on the actual aircraft HW, and has not been developed, analysed and tested to anywhere near the same exacting standards used for flight control software (Design Assurance Level A, according to the RTCA DO-178B standard to which I believe the Boeing 777 flight control system was certified. Consider even the exacting and resource-intensive MCDC assessment required for DAL A. If you don’t know what MCDC is, let me recommend Kelly Hayhurst’s NASA tutorial. Nobody performs MCDC assessment on PC-based flight simulation SW).

To summarise, the demo was a little like hacking an X-box F1 road race game. It doesn’t mean you can take over Sebastian Vettel’s car in the middle of a real race.

Unlike the authors of the newspaper article, I have put most of these thoughts past a group of experts, including the designers of the SAFEbus. I think Philippe Domogala, John Downer, Edward Downham, Kevin Driscoll, Ken Hoyme, Don Hudson, Michael Paulitsch, Mark Rogers, Bernd Sieker, and Steve Tockey for a very enlightening discussion.

There has been some thought about whether it is feasible for an interception aircraft with transmission capability to fly formation with MH 370, so that there would only be one blip on primary radar, and accomplish such an electronic takeover. The considerations above would still apply, as far as I can see – you still need to modify the physical HW in advance on the target airplane to allow electronic intrusion from outside.

PBL

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